Thebes and Boeotia - 519 B.C.
The leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital; other major towns were Orchomenus, Plataea, and Thespiae. It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which, initially, was merely religious.
In 519 B.C. however, Sparta had advised the small Boeotian city of Plataea to ally with Hippias' Athens, rather than join the pan-Boeotian league dominated by Thebes. This sowed enmity between Thebes and Athens for many years to come.